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GMBA Mountain Definition: Ruggedness & Bioclimatic Belts Data


This folder contains releases #2 (archived), #3, and #4 of the GMBA Mountain Definition. 

Release notes: 
  1. Release #2: this release contains the ruggedness data calculated according to Körner et al. (2011) using WorldClim data and the bioclimatic belt data described in Körner et al. (2011).
  2. Release #3: this release contains the same files as release #2 and a new binary layer (mountain mask) that readily distinguishes mountainous from non-mountainous terrain ("GMBA_2016_MntnMask_WorldClim_V1.2", mountainous = 1, non-mountainous = 0). This layer is calculated based on the files included in this release and according to Körner et al. (2011).
  3. Release #4: this release contains new files calculated using GMTED2010 data at 30 arc second resolution downloaded from EarthEnv. It includes the ruggedness and mountain mask layers but not the biolimatic belt layers. 
  4. If no bioclimatic belt information is needed, we recommend the use of the data available in release #4. The use of the bioclimatic belt data available in release #3 with layers of release #4 may lead to errors. 
  5. Differences between release #3 and #4 in total area of mountainous terrain are due to the use of a more recent digital elevation model for the calculation. 
  6. Detailed information about each release can be found in the information document included in each release folder. 
Release #4 (May 2021): GMBA_2021_Mountain_Rasters_V2 
Release #3 (May 2021): GMBA_2016_Mountain_Rasters_V1.2For information about the methods: see Körner et al (2011) Alp Bot.pdf

For citation purposes: When using the GMBA ruggedness data, please cite: Körner C, Paulsen J, Spehn E (2011). A definition of mountains and their bioclimatic belts for global comparisons of biodiversity data. Alpine Botany 121(2): 73-78 (DOI: 10.1007/s00035-011-0094-4) and the dataset DOI: 10.7892/boris.83486.  

Release #2 (May 2017): GMBA_2016_Mountain_Rasters_V1.1 
For additional information, please contact


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